RE PUGH collection
This database contains a selection of parasite and other pictures collected by myself Dr RE Pugh (also known as RE Boreham) and my late first husband Professor PFL Boreham.

Peter Boreham
Peter had a distinguished career as a research scientist at Imperial College London including research in Africa notably on sleeping sickness and arthropod epidemiology, as a WHO consultant and research at the Queensland Institute of Medical Research (QIMR), Brisbane. This database contains some of this work.

Robyn Pugh
I have worked as a scientist in pathology laboratories in Australia, Mt Hagen and Goroka Hospitals, Papua New Guinea and in a Laotian refugee camp, Ban Nam Yao in Thailand, lectured at the Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, worked as a research scientist at QIMR and the University of Queensland and as a consultant parasitologist for Sullivan Nicolaides pathology firm, Queensland, Australia.

Some of this work is included in this collection of chiefly parasitic diseases of humans as well as some animal parasitic diseases, bacterial and fungal infections of humans and sundry other diseases. Many species are endemic to Australia but many others were from infections in travellers or residents from other countries especially PNG, Thailand and Laos.

The Collection
The aim of this slide collection is to assist in the diagnosis and research of parasitic and other diseases, particularly rare diseases. The aim is to provide a pictorial display of actual parasites with which to compare the parasites under investigation but it is not meant to replace parasitology textbooks and atlases which provide full descriptions of all parasites and the diseases they cause including treatments. This is not intended to be a comprehensive collection of parasites, nor is the taxonomic classification complete.

The slide collection is merely the parasites encountered during my work and that of Peter Boreham and which, I hope will be appreciated for their own intrinsic value as well. I find the study of parasites and their life cycles fascinating and hope that this collection will be useful to encourage others to continue studies in parasitology. The taxonomic classification I've used is a practical way of grouping the parasites which we encountered and in no way is meant to be comprehensive. Indeed, some of it may have become or will become superseded as taxonomic classifications change when more information is obtained about parasites' genomes, but hopefully the classification I have used is sufficiently useful to find parasites of interest.

Another useful way to find the parasites that interest you is to search according to infection site. I have focused on providing sufficient information to distinguish closely resembling parasites and also provide useful information to identify parasites, and in particular unusual forms especially of malaria parasites which can present as aberrant forms because they have been affected by treatment, host responses, inadequate collection of specimens or preservation of specimens. I refer you to other texts (some I give in the bibliography below) for more information.

I wish to thank all persons whose infections are displayed in this collection. I have made all possible attempts to ensure patients are not identifiable. I hope this collection will ensure that others infected with these parasites are diagnosed and treated promptly thus reducing the length of their suffering.
I especially thank my husband Donald Keating for developing this database and for the many hours he has spent scanning in old kodachrome slides and in acting as scribe for me to describe each slide.
Dr Deb Stenzel studied Blastocystis for her PhD under Peter's supervision and subsequently worked with me providing EM photographs of some of the specimens which I had collected especially Blastocystis; some of these are included in this collection. I thank all those who have worked with me, for their help and expertise.
I wish to acknowledge the many colleagues and students who worked with Peter - some are referred in the Bibliography and/ or with the relevant slides; there are too many to name all. Mr Bob Domrow was very helpful over the years in helping me identify some of the more unusual arthropods that people claimed had attacked them. I wish to acknowledge the various institutions mentioned above where this work was conducted especially Sullivan Nicolaides Pathology as many of the specimens originated from work conducted there and specimens were photographed with the assistance of their photographer, Stephen Porta and the encouragement of Dr Michael Harrison.

Binford, C.H. & Connor, D.H. (ed) 1976. Pathology of Tropical and Extraordinary Diseases, Volumes 1 and 2. Armed Forces of Pathology, Washington.
Boorman, J., Mellor, P.S., Boreham, P.F.L. & Hewett, R.S. 1977. A latex agglutination test for the identification of blood - meals of Culiciodes (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Bull. Ent. Res. 67:305-311.
Boreham, P.F.L. 1988. Pathophysiological, Chemotherapeutic and Epidemiological Studies of some Parasitic Infections with special reference to Vector-borne Diseases. DSc Thesis. University of London. (copies are held at QIMR and the library of the Imperial College London; A prototype of latex agglutination blood meal identification test kit is held in the Science Museum London E2005.61.1 SCM Clinical Diagnosis)
Boreham, P.F.L. 1995. Dreamtime, Devastation and Deviation: Australia's Contribution to the Chemotherapy of Human Parasitic infections. Presidential address to the Australian Society for Parasitology. IJP. 25:1009-1022.
Boreham, R.E. & Boreham, P.F.L. 1990. Dipylidium caninum: Life cycle, Epizootiology, and Control. Comp. Cont. Ed. Pract. Vet. 12:667-676.
Boreham, R.E. & Relf, W.A. 1991. Imported malaria in Australia. Med. J. Aust. 155:754-757.
Boreham, R.E., McCowan, M.J., Ryan, A.E., Allworth, A.M. & Robson, J.M.B. 1995. Human trichostrongyliasis in Queensland. Pathology. 27:182-185.
Boreham, R.E., Benson, S., Stenzel, D.J. & Boreham, P.F.L. 1996. An unusual infection of Blastocystis. Lancet.348:272-273.
Boreham, R.E., Cooney, P.T. & Stewart, P.A. 1997. Dirofilariasis with conjunctival inflammation. MJA. 167:51.
Boreham, R.E., Hendrick, S., O'Donoghue, P.J. & Stenzel, D.J. 1998. Incidental Finding of Myxobolus Spores (Protozoa: Myxozoa) in Stool Samples from
Patients with Gastrointestinal Symptoms. J.Clin.Microbiol. 36:3728-3730.
Garcia, L.S. & Bruckner, D.A. 1997. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 3rd edition. ASM Press, Washington DC. 937 pp.
Jeffrey, H.C. & Leach, R.M. 1975. Atlas of Medical Helminthology and Protozoology, 2nd edition. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London and New York. 121 pp.
McDougall, R.J., Tandy, M.W., Boreham, R.E., Stenzel, D.J. & O'Donoghue, P.J. 1993. Incidental finding of a microsporidian parasite from an AIDS patient. J. Clin. Microbiol.31:436-439.
Miyazaki, I. 1991. An illustrated Book of Helminthic Zoonoses. International Medical Foundation of Japan, Tokyo. 494pp.
Orihel, T.C. & Ash, L.R. 1995. Parasites in Human Tissues. ASCP, Chicago. 386pp.
Pugh, R.E. 1985. Dipylidium caninum in Intermediate Hosts: with Special Reference to the Hosts' Susceptibility to Infections. PhD thesis. University of Queensland.
Relf, W.A., Boreham, R.E., Tapchaisri, P. et al. 1990. Diagnosis of Plamodium vivax using a specific deoxyribonucleic acid probe. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 84:630-634.
Smart, J. 1943. A Handbook for the Identification of Insects of Medical Importance. British Museum. Great Britain. 269pp.
Yoshida, Y., Okamoto, K. & Chui, J.K. 1968. Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection in dogs, cats and man in Taiwan. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 17:378-381.